The electrochromic response of WO3thin films under electrochemical insertion from nonaqueous electrolytes of one of the three different ions: protons, lithium and sodium cations is reported. In spite of the common belief that the nature of the ion does not change the electrochromic effect, we show that the sample colouring and bleaching are dependent on the intercalant ion and on the insertion rate. The facile insertion of protons is responsible for the highest optical contrast and the quickest response time of this intercalation electrode. Lithium and sodium-intercalated electrodes do not show large optical difference from the proton-intercalated tungsten trioxide unless large charging currents are used. Subtle changes in electrochromic efficiency and in the optical contrast in the red part of the spectrum can be detected; these are larger for the sodium than for the lithium intercalant. According to our analysis, the slow insertion kinetics of Na+and the formation of a new MxWO3(M=Li, Na) compound is responsible for most of the observed differences. © 1996 Chapman & Hall.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Chemistry