Chapter 6: Steady state operation

C. Gormezano, A.C.C. Sips, T.C. Luce, S. Ide, A. Becoulet, X. Litaudon, A. Isayama, J. Hobirk, M.R. Wade, T. Oikawa, R. Prater, A. Zvonkov, B. Lloyd, T. Suzuki, E. Barbato, P. Bonoli, C.K. Phillips, V. Vdovin, E. Joffrin, T. CasperJ. Ferron, D. Mazon, D. Moreau, R. Bundy, C. Kessel, A. Fukuyama, N. Hayashi, F. Imbeaux, M. Murakami, A.R. Polevoi, H.E. St. John

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Significant progress has been made in the area of advanced modes of operation that are candidates for achieving steady state conditions in a fusion reactor. The corresponding parameters, domain of operation, scenarios and integration issues of advanced scenarios are discussed in this chapter. A review of the presently developed scenarios, including discussions on operational space, is given. Significant progress has been made in the domain of heating and current drive in recent years, especially in the domain of off-axis current drive, which is essential for the achievement of the required current profile. The actuators for heating and current drive that are necessary to produce and control the advanced tokamak discharges are discussed, including modelling and predictions for ITER. The specific control issues for steady state operation are discussed, including the already existing experimental results as well as the various strategies and needs (qψ profile control and temperature gradients). Achievable parameters for the ITER steady state and hybrid scenarios with foreseen heating and current drive systems are discussed using modelling including actuators, allowing an assessment of achievable current profiles. Finally, a summary is given in the last section including outstanding issues and recommendations for further research and development. © 2007 IAEA, Vienna.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberS06
Pages (from-to)-
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Gormezano, C., Sips, A. C. C., Luce, T. C., Ide, S., Becoulet, A., Litaudon, X., Isayama, A., Hobirk, J., Wade, M. R., Oikawa, T., Prater, R., Zvonkov, A., Lloyd, B., Suzuki, T., Barbato, E., Bonoli, P., Phillips, C. K., Vdovin, V., Joffrin, E., ... St. John, H. E. (2007). Chapter 6: Steady state operation. Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), -. [S06].