Irradiation of solid targets by short laser pulses can result in a production of fast ions. In this paper, two production modes are discussed: the controlled amount of matter mode (CAM) and the open amount of matter mode (OAM). The CAM mode is based on laser energy transfer to a controlled amount of matter before the target becomes transparent to the laser light due to the gas-dynamical expansion. For the CAM mode, it is presented a model that allows determining the target parameters, the focusing conditions, and the pulse duration as a function of the laser pulse energy, of the aimed energy per nucleon and of the energy transfer efficiency to the target. The conditions to be this mode experimentally addressed are indicated. The OAM mode relies on the irradiation of a target with large ion content by a short laser pulse; in this case, a small amount of fast ions is emitted from the rear and lateral sides of the target depending on the laser pulse and focusing parameters. For this mode, observed in several experiments, a theoretical discussion is presented. Special attention is devoted to the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) and to expansion wave (EW) mechanisms. The EW process is discussed in the framework of a two-temperature isothermal model and some peculiar hydrodynamic processes are discussed. Copyright © 2005 Cambridge University Press.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering