Determination of Z

M.E. Galante, L.M. Reusch, D.J. Den Hartog, P. Franz, J.R. Johnson, M.B. McGarry, M.D. Nornberg, H.D. Stephens

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8 Citations (Scopus)


The effective ionic charge, Zeff, is determined through the integration of soft x-ray tomography and charge exchange recombination spectroscopy impurity density measurements in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Zeff is found is be 2.3 ±0.1 in the core of high temperature, high current, improved confinement discharges, with a slightly hollow profile peaking near mid-radius. A Bayesian probability framework, developed as part of an on-going effort in Integrated Data Analysis, was used to incorporate these two measurements. This framework provides a method to address different systematic and statistical uncertainties associated with each diagnostic and to test hypothetical contributions to Zeff against the existing data set. The combined analysis provides much higher confidence in the result than previous single-diagnostic attempts to characterize Zeff using near-infrared bremsstrahlung or x-ray spectroscopy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number123016
Pages (from-to)-
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Galante, M. E., Reusch, L. M., Den Hartog, D. J., Franz, P., Johnson, J. R., McGarry, M. B., ... Stephens, H. D. (2015). Determination of Z. Nuclear Fusion, 55(12), -. [123016].