Experiments in FTU with different limiter materials

M.L. Apicella, G. Apruzzese, M. Borra, G. Bracco, M. Ciotti, I. Condrea, F. Crisanti, R. De Angelis, C. Ferro, L. Gabellieri, G. Gatti, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Maddaluno, G. Maruccia, G. Mazzitelli, D. Pacella, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, L. Pieroni, R. ZagorskiF. Alladio, R. Bartiromo, G. Buceti, P. Buratti, C. Centioli, V. Cocilovo, B. Esposito, A. Frattolillo, E. Giovannozzi, M. Grolli, A. Imparato, L. Lovisetto, P. Micozzi, S. Migliori, A. Moleti, F. Orsitto, L. Panaccione, M. Pannella, S. Podda, G.B. Righetti, E. Sternini, A.A. Tuccillo, O. Tudisco, F. Valente, V. Vitale, R. Zanino, V. Zanza, M. Zerbini

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Over the last few years, a great deal of effort has been devoted to solving the problem of power and particle handling in divertors, which has been recognized as a critical issue for the operation of a magnetic fusion reactor. In particular, the choice of materials for plasma facing components has been examined with a view to developing heat and erosion resistant materials for divertor target plates. A large database on the behaviour of low-Z (carbon or beryllium) materials in tokamaks is available, while for high-Z materials there is little experience in the present generation of magnetic fusion devices. Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), a high field compact tokamak, has devoted part of its experimental campaign to studying the plasma characteristics when its limiter material is changed from the usual Inconel (nickel) to molybdenum and tungsten. Siliconization of the machine has also allowed the comparison of plasma performance when a relatively low-Z (silicon) ion is the dominant impurity. In this article, results are reported concerning the plasma operation, the differences in plasma characteristics and radiation losses, the impurity generation mechanisms and the relative impurity concentrations in the core plasma. A simulation of the experimental results, made with a self-consistent edge-core coupled model is presented, in order to provide evidence of the main physics mechanisms responsible for the observed behaviour.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381 - 396
Number of pages16
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1997
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Apicella, M. L., Apruzzese, G., Borra, M., Bracco, G., Ciotti, M., Condrea, I., ... Zerbini, M. (1997). Experiments in FTU with different limiter materials. Nuclear Fusion, 37(3), 381 - 396. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/37/3/I12