One of the main problems in speciation analysis is that the different species of metals are present in complex matrices at very low concentration levels. Thus it is almost always necessary to separate the analytes of concern from the matrix and to concentrate them up to detectable concentration levels. Special care should be paid during extraction in order to avoid any contamination of samples, losses and changes in speciation of analytes of concern. The most common extraction techniques for speciation analysis of Pb, Sn, Hg, Cr, As, Se and Sb in liquid and solid samples are presented and briefly discussed. Due to the large quantity of material to be covered, speciation of alkyl, aryl, and macromolecular compounds (porphyrines, thioneines, etc.) has not been taken into account. © 1995 Springer-Verlag.
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