In tokamaks, the role of turbulent transport of heavy impurities, relative to that of neoclassical transport, increases with increasing size of the plasma, as clarified by means of general scalings, which use the ITER standard scenario parameters as reference, and by actual results from a selection of discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JET. This motivates the theoretical investigation of the properties of the turbulent convection of heavy impurities by nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in the experimentally relevant conditions of comparable ion and electron heat fluxes. These conditions also correspond to an intermediate regime between dominant ion temperature gradient turbulence and trapped electron mode turbulence. At moderate plasma toroidal rotation, the turbulent convection of heavy impurities, computed with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, is found to be directed outward, in contrast to that obtained by quasi-linear calculations based on the most unstable linear mode, which is directed inward. In this mixed turbulence regime, with comparable electron and ion heat fluxes, the nonlinear results of the impurity transport can be explained by the coexistence of both ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the turbulent state, both contributing to the turbulent convection and diffusion of the impurity. The impact of toroidal rotation on the turbulent convection is also clarified.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics
Upgrade Team, A., Angioni, C., Bilato, R., Casson, F. J., Fable, E., Mantica, P., Odstrcil, T., & Valisa, M. (2017). Gyrokinetic study of turbulent convection of heavy impurities in tokamak plasmas at comparable ion and electron heat fluxes. Nuclear Fusion, 57(2), -. . https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/57/2/022009