Identification of cost-optimal and NZEB refurbishment levels for representative climates and building typologies across Europe

Paolo Zangheri, Roberto Armani, Marco Pietrobon, Lorenzo Pagliano

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18 Citations (Scopus)


The energy consumptions of the building stock are playing a central role in the energy policy of the European Union. While the Member States are applying the Directives in force, the European Commission is working to update the regulatory framework. Specifically, it is necessary to achieve the great unrealized potential for energy savings in existing buildings. With this aim, the nearly zero-energy building (NZEB) target was introduced, and a comparative methodology framework to calculate cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements was proposed. This study focuses on the issue of building renovation, and it presents the results obtained with the application of a cost-optimal calculation method for identifying proper retrofit measures to reach cost-optimal levels and NZEB levels. The assessment takes into account an exhaustive set of passive and active renovation options and it was extended to various building types of 60s–70s (residential and non-residential) in a wide range of representative European climatic conditions. A very relevant energy-saving potential was found for all cost-optimal benchmarks, and in many cases, the obtained NZEB refurbishments have resulted interesting also from an economic point of view.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)337 - 369
Number of pages33
JournalEnergy Efficiency
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy(all)

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