Impact of the botanical insecticide Neem Azal

Annette Habluetzel, Fiorella Carnevali, Leonardo Lucantoni, Lucia Grana, Anna Rita Attili, Francesca Archilei, Marco Antonini, Alessandro Valbonesi, Valerio Abbadessa, Fulvio Esposito, Stephen Andrew van der Esch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)


Secondary metabolites present in the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae), exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have been undertaken to assess the potential of neem products as insecticides for the control of ectoparasites of domestic animals. This study was undertaken to estimate the efficacy of Neem Azal®, an azadirachtin-rich extract of neem seeds, in controlling Damalinia limbata (Phthiraptera) louse infestation of angora goats. The study was conducted on a fibre animal farm situated in Central Italy. Groups of 11-12 goats were treated with Neem Azal®at an azadirachtin concentration of 650 ppm or 125 ppm, with Neguvon®or were left untreated. Their louse burden was assessed fortnightly to monthly for 22 weeks. A reduction in louse densities of 76-96% was observed from week 2 to week 18 after treatment with the neem solution containing azadirachtin at a concentration of 650 ppm. At the lower test concentration (125 ppm) a reduction of 60-92% could be recorded from week 2 to week 14. Neem Azal®was found to reduce the survival of both adult and nymph stages of D. limbata and to interfere with oviposition and oogenesis of female lice. A decrease in oviposition was observed in neem exposed female lice and the examination of their ovaries revealed morphological alterations in both vitellogenic and previtellogenic ovarioles at the follicular and germinal level. Since neem compounds target different life stages and physiological processes of D. limbata, the development of insecticide resistance by biting lice exposed to neem-based insecticides appears unlikely. For this reason and for its prolonged activity, which in principle allows angora goats to be protected for a large part of the mohair production cycle, neem-based insecticides may have a potential interest for mohair producing breeders. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328 - 337
Number of pages10
JournalVeterinary Parasitology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Habluetzel, A., Carnevali, F., Lucantoni, L., Grana, L., Attili, A. R., Archilei, F., Antonini, M., Valbonesi, A., Abbadessa, V., Esposito, F., & van der Esch, S. A. (2007). Impact of the botanical insecticide Neem Azal. Veterinary Parasitology, 144(3-4), 328 - 337.