Increase in HFC-134a emissions in response to the success of the Montreal protocol

A. Fortems-Cheiney, M. Saunois, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Cressot, S.A. Montzka, P.J. Fraser, M.K. Vollmer, P.G. Simmonds, D. Young, S. O’Doherty, R.F. Weiss, F. Artuso, B. Barletta, D.R. Blake, S. Li, C. Lunder, B.R. Miller, S. ParkR. Prinn, T. Saito, L.P. Steele, Y. Yokouchi

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The 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), an important alternative to CFC-12 in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, is a high global warming potential greenhouse gas. Here we evaluate variations in global and regional HFC-134a emissions and emission trends, from 1995 to 2010, at a relatively high spatial and temporal (3.75° in longitude × 2.5° in latitude and 8 day) resolution, using surface HFC-134a measurements. Our results show a progressive increase of global HFC-134a emissions from 19 ± 2 Gg/yr in 1995 to 167 ± 5 Gg/yr in 2010, with both a slowdown in developed countries and a 20%/yr increase in China since 2005. A seasonal cycle is also seen since 2002, which becomes enhanced over time, with larger values during the boreal summer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11,728 - 11,742
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Fortems-Cheiney, A., Saunois, M., Pison, I., Chevallier, F., Bousquet, P., Cressot, C., ... Yokouchi, Y. (2015). Increase in HFC-134a emissions in response to the success of the Montreal protocol. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120(22), 11,728 - 11,742.