Microwave exposure systems for in vivo biological experiments: A systematic review

Alessandra Paffi, Caterina Merla, Rosanna Pinto, Giorgio A. Lovisolo, Micaela Liberti, Carmela Marino, Michael Repacholi, Francesca Apollonio

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

28 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provides a systematic review and classification of in vivo microwave exposure systems used from 1999 for bioelectromagnetic investigations. The main features of each system's typology are presented and discussed for different types of experiments. From our critical analysis, some key issues have been identified and addressed concerning the importance of reliable dosimetric characterization of exposure systems for different types of in vivo study. Our review of the strengths and weaknesses of each electromagnetic exposure system will be useful for identifying those features necessary for new bioelectromagnetics studies involving exposures to high-frequency fields, typical of those used in new telecommunication technologies, and multiple sources. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6470730
Pages (from-to)1980 - 1993
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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