Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are high-temperature fuel cells that stand at the end of more than 35 years of intensive development and are finding increased applications in the field of high-efficiency, clean energy supply. They can provide heat and power at overall efficiencies of 90%, and thanks to their operating principle, they could also be used in the incumbent large-scale application of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Despite continuous improvements in the technology, some crucial issues still call for focused research and development before the MCFC achieves full operational reliability, especially in conversion of waste-derived fuels. To gain experience and steepen the learning curve leading to market maturity, cost reduction of components, and manufacturing processes are a priority. Current developments have shown that this is a crucial period in MCFC deployment, with certain developers discontinuing their activities, being stumped by the challenges related to the increase of reliability and cost reduction, where others are registering continuous market growth and first profits since commercialization started, having overcome them.
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