Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function: A multipollutant assessment in Greenlandic, Polish and Ukrainian men

Virissa Lenters, Lützen Portengen, Lidwien A. M. Smit, Bo A. G. Jönsson, Aleksander Giwercman, Lars Rylander, Christian H. Lindh, Marcello Spanò, Henning S. Pedersen, Jan K. Ludwicki, Lyubov Chumak, Aldert H. Piersma, Gunnar Toft, Jens Peter Bonde, Dick Heederik, Roel Vermeulen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Numerous environmental contaminants have been linked to adverse reproductive health outcomes. However, the complex correlation structure of exposures and multiple testing issues limit the interpretation of existing evidence. Our objective was to identify, from a large set of contaminant exposures, exposure profiles associated with biomarkers of male reproductive function. Methods: In this cross-sectional study (n=602), male partners of pregnant women were enrolled between 2002 and 2004 during antenatal care visits in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Fifteen contaminants were detected in more than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin integrity, epididymal and accessory sex gland function, and Y:X chromosome ratio. We evaluated multipollutant models with sparse partial least squares (sPLS) regression, a simultaneous dimension reduction and variable selection approach which accommodates joint modelling of correlated exposures. Results: Of the over 300 exposure - outcome associations tested in sPLS models, we detected 10 associations encompassing 8 outcomes. Several associations were notably consistent in direction across the three study populations: positive associations between mercury and inhibin B, and between cadmium and testosterone; and inverse associations between DiNP metabolites and testosterone, between polychlorinated biphenyl-153 and progressive sperm motility, and between a DEHP metabolite and neutral α-glucosidase, a marker of epididymal function. Conclusions: This global assessment of a mixture of environmental contaminants provides further indications that some organochlorines and phthalates adversely affect some parameters of male reproductive health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385 - 393
Number of pages9
JournalOccupational and Environmental Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Lenters, V., Portengen, L., Smit, L. A. M., Jönsson, B. A. G., Giwercman, A., Rylander, L., Lindh, C. H., Spanò, M., Pedersen, H. S., Ludwicki, J. K., Chumak, L., Piersma, A. H., Toft, G., Bonde, J. P., Heederik, D., & Vermeulen, R. (2015). Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function: A multipollutant assessment in Greenlandic, Polish and Ukrainian men. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 72(6), 385 - 393.