Polarimetry as tool to improve phase measurement in an amplitude modulated laser for submarine archaeological sites inspection

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri De Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, R. Ricci

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

5 Citations (Scopus)


The propagation of polarized laser beams in turbid water is a subject of relevant interest in the field of underwater quantitative visualization with active sensors like amplitude modulated laser systems. In such devices, target range determination is based on the measurement of the phase difference Δφ between the fraction of the amplitude modulated laser beam reflected by the target and a reference signal. As water turbidity increases, the laser radiation backscattered from the water column shined by the sounding laser beam gives rise to an optical background with detrimental effects on the accuracy of range measurement. In this paper we analyze the possibility to increase the apparatus accuracy with a Polarimetrie technique based on the adoption of polarized laser radiation and polarization selective detection scheme for improving the underwater imaging of real scenes (e.g. archaeological sites). The method fully takes advantages of the different polarization properties of the laser radiation backscattered by turbid water and of the Lambertian component diffusively reflected by the target as described by the associated Mueller matrices. Measurements have been performed by adopting both a co-polarized and cross-polarized detection scheme with linearly and circularly polarized laser radiation. Various degrees of turbidity were realized by adding, as diffusive element, skim milk to water in order to obtain different scattering conditions. The effect of the transition from Rayleigh to Mie scattering regime on phase accuracy determination has been investigated together with the role played by high order scatterings as the medium approaches the optical thickness condition.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes
EventO3A: Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology - , Germany
Duration: 1 Jan 2007 → …


ConferenceO3A: Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology
Period1/1/07 → …


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Bartolini, L., De Dominicis, L., De Collibus, M. F., Fornetti, G., Francucci, M., Guarneri, M., ... Ricci, R. (2007). Polarimetry as tool to improve phase measurement in an amplitude modulated laser for submarine archaeological sites inspection. Paper presented at O3A: Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology, Germany. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.725320