Reuse of a treated red mud bauxite waste: Studies on environmental compatibility

Claudia Brunori, Carlo Cremisini, Paolo Massanisso, Valentina Pinto, Leonardo Torricelli

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214 Citations (Scopus)


Red mud is the major solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite (Bayer process). Environmental "compatibility" of a treated red mud was studied in order to evaluate its possible recycling in environmental compartments. The leaching test requested by the Italian law on treated solid waste to be "re-introduced in the environment" was performed on this material. Moreover, in order to better evaluate the environmental compatibility, three different types of eco-toxicological tests were applied (Microtox™ test, ASTM microalgae toxicity test and sea urchin embryo toxicity test). These "chemical" and eco-toxicological tests gave encouraging results. The possibility to use this material for treating contaminated waters and soils was evaluated, again with particular attention to the Italian regulatory system, through experiments on the treated red mud metal trapping ability and on the subsequent release of trapped metals, at low pH conditions. The treated red mud showed a general high metal trapping capacity and the release at low pH was generally low. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55 - 63
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2005
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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