RFX-mod wall conditioning by lithium pellet injection

S. Munaretto, S. Dal Bello, P. Innocente, M. Agostini, F. Auriemma, S. Barison, A. Canton, L. Carraro, G. De Masi, S. Fiameni, P. Scarin, D. Terranova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)


Plasma-wall interaction is one of the most important issues that present magnetic confinement devices have to face. In the RFX-mod reversed field pinch experiment plasma-wall interaction has become a hard point increasing plasma current up to the RFX-mod maximum design value of 2 MA, since in this case local power deposition can be as high as 10 MW m -2. Since the first wall of RFX-mod is entirely covered by graphite tiles different techniques have been tested to control hydrogen wall influx: He glow discharges cleaning, He discharges at high plasma currents, wall boronization and baking. With the best results obtained by boronization, at high plasma currents all such techniques improve the situation but do not allow a complete and stationary hydrogen influx reduction. Furthermore, in the presence of localized high power load the wall still responds providing very high influxes. In order to improve this situation wall conditioning by lithium has been tested. As a first lithization method to deposit a controllable amount of lithium on the wall, a room temperature pellet injector has been used (maximum pellet diameter of 1.8 mm and maximum length of 5 mm). Lithium coatings with a theoretical thickness of about 10 nm have been applied both to clean graphite tiles and over boronized ones. Lithization demonstrated to be effective in lowering hydrogen wall recycling to a value smaller than that of boronized graphite, with the effect lasting 20-30% more than in the boronized case. Compared with boronization, lithization slightly improves (by about 30%) particle confinement time and also clearly affects edge particle transport providing a lower edge density and more peaked density profiles. Lithization also reduces carbon content by about 10% over boronization but still no clear improvement has been observed in terms of energy confinement. Similar results have been obtained performing lithization over boronized graphite. © 2012 IAEA, Vienna.
Original languageEnglish
Article number023012
Pages (from-to)-
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Munaretto, S., Dal Bello, S., Innocente, P., Agostini, M., Auriemma, F., Barison, S., ... Terranova, D. (2012). RFX-mod wall conditioning by lithium pellet injection. Nuclear Fusion, 52(2), -. [023012]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/52/2/023012