In this work, we evaluated the risk posed to aquatic organisms in the coastal waters of Albania and Apulia (Italy) by two priority pollutants (PPs), Irgarol 1051 and Diuron, used as biocides in antifouling paints on boat hulls. With this aim, we carried out an extensive 3-year monitoring in ports and marinas along the coasts of both countries, which showed a widespread occurrence of both PPs, with Irgarol 1051 concentrations usually being lower than the Diuron ones. The measured concentrations were compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) (Directive 2008/105/EC) and used to perform a probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), for a thorough evaluation of the potential adverse effects upon marine ecosystem. Irgarol 1051 amounts above the Annual Average Concentration (AA-EQS, 2.5 ng/L) were often detected in Apulia and, less frequently, in Albania. Moreover, in Apulia, sometimes the Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC-EQS, 16 ng/L) was exceeded. In Apulia, where levels exceeded MAC/AA-EQS, ERA found not negligible probabilities of exceeding the toxicity level (6–18 %). A less critical situation was observed for Diuron whose levels were always below the MAC-EQS (1800 ng/L) in both countries and, in Albania, also below the AA-EQS (200 ng/L). On the other hand, in Apulia, this limit was exceeded in some locations. Correspondingly, ERA determined a not negligible risk in these sites (probability of exceedance 4–7 %).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law