Scintillation characteristics of PbWO

M. Kobayashi, Y. Usuki, M. Ishii, N. Senguttuvan, K. Tanji, M. Chiba, K. Hara, H. Takano, M. Nikl, P. Bohacek, S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, M. Diemoz, A. Vedda, M. Martini

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In our previous papers we reported that La3+, Gd3+, Y3+, and Lu3+dopings significantly improve the optical and scintillation characteristics, including radiation hardness, of PbWO4single crystals. The hypothesis of Pb2+deficiency in the grown crystals and its charge compensation by the mentioned trivalent ions occupying the Pb2+sites has been proposed to explain the observed improvement. Under such assumption, tetravalent-ion doping may be as efficient as or even more efficient than trivalent-ion doping in improving PbWO4scintillator. Recently we extended the dopant ions to stable tetravalent ions (Th4+, Zr4+) and some other ions (Ce3+,4+, Sb3+,5+, Mn2+). We have found that the tetravalent-ion (Th4+) doping gives similar improvement compared with the trivalent-ion doping in consistency with the expectation mentioned above. The ions with two different possible charge states (Ce3+,4+, Sb3+,5+) gave finite but much less improvement than the trivalent and tetravalent ions. Ce3+,4+doping reduced the light yield significantly. Annealing of undoped PWO in PbO vapour was also studied to examine the possibility of reducing the Pb2+deficiency. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)428 - 439
Number of pages12
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jun 2001
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

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