Simulation of the hybrid and steady state advanced operating modes in ITER

C.E. Kessel, G. Giruzzi, A.C.C. Sips, R.V. Budny, J.F. Artaud, V. Basiuk, F. Imbeaux, E. Joffrin, M. Schneider, M. Murakami, T. Luce, Holger St John, T. Oikawa, N. Hayashi, T. Takizuka, T. Ozeki, Y.-S. Na, J.M. Park, J. Garcia, A.A. Tucillo

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Integrated simulations are performed to establish a physics basis, in conjunction with present tokamak experiments, for the operating modes in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Simulations of the hybrid mode are done using both fixed and free-boundary 1.5D transport evolution codes including CRONOS, ONETWO, TSC/TRANSP, TOPICS and ASTRA. The hybrid operating mode is simulated using the GLF23 and CDBM05 energy transport models. The injected powers are limited to the negative ion neutral beam, ion cyclotron and electron cyclotron heating systems. Several plasma parameters and source parameters are specified for the hybrid cases to provide a comparison of 1.5D core transport modelling assumptions, source physics modelling assumptions, as well as numerous peripheral physics modelling. Initial results indicate that very strict guidelines will need to be imposed on the application of GLF23, for example, to make useful comparisons. Some of the variations among the simulations are due to source models which vary widely among the codes used. In addition, there are a number of peripheral physics models that should be examined, some of which include fusion power production, bootstrap current, treatment of fast particles and treatment of impurities. The hybrid simulations project to fusion gains of 5.6-8.3, βNvalues of 2.1-2.6 and fusion powers ranging from 350 to 500 MW, under the assumptions outlined in section 3. Simulations of the steady state operating mode are done with the same 1.5D transport evolution codes cited above, except the ASTRA code. In these cases the energy transport model is more difficult to prescribe, so that energy confinement models will range from theory based to empirically based. The injected powers include the same sources as used for the hybrid with the possible addition of lower hybrid. The simulations of the steady state mode project to fusion gains of 3.5-7, βNvalues of 2.3-3.0 and fusion powers of 290 to 415 MW, under the assumptions described in section 4. These simulations will be presented and compared with particular focus on the resulting temperature profiles, source profiles and peripheral physics profiles. The steady state simulations are at an early stage and are focused on developing a range of safety factor profiles with 100% non-inductive current. © 2007 IAEA, Vienna.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1274 - 1284
Number of pages11
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Kessel, C. E., Giruzzi, G., Sips, A. C. C., Budny, R. V., Artaud, J. F., Basiuk, V., ... Tucillo, A. A. (2007). Simulation of the hybrid and steady state advanced operating modes in ITER. Nuclear Fusion, 47(9), 1274 - 1284.