The present communication highlights the evolution of biofuels while giving prior attention to next-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic wastes. Both biochemical (chemicals, enzymes, and fermentative microorganisms) and thermochemical (heat and chemical) processes are addressed. For biochemical processes, topics related to the pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation steps as well as process integration are also discussed. For the thermochemical processes, research topic such as process development and process analysis will be dealt with. Important R&D technical aspects, economic assessment of available technologies, limitations of certain technological approaches, etc., will also be discussed in the present communication.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law