The common physical origin of the gravitational, strong and weak forces

Maurizio Michelini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Particles moving within the flux of micro-quanta filling the space have been shown to obey the Relativistic Mechanics and to undergo a gravitational "pushing" force with G depending locally on the quantum flux constants. Due to the very little quantum energy Eo, the ratio E o/mc2 equals about 10-50 so the collisions with particles follow the optical reflection accurately. The simultaneous micro-quanta hitting upon a nucleon are about 1050, a high number due to the small wavelength which results close to Planck's length. Along the joining line between two particles there is a lack of incident quanta (missing beam) which determines unbalanced collisions generating drawing forces between particles by mutual screening. These forces increment the particle energy, as shown for instance by the heating during the gravitational contraction of the galactic gas globules leading to protostars. This mechanism allows to predict that observations of the thermal emission from major solar planets may exceed the power received from solar light. When two particles are very close, the mutual screening highly increments the missing beam, giving rise to a short-range strong force which is of the right strength to hold protons and neutrons within the atomic nuclei. The belief that nuclear forces are "self-produced" by nucleons is disproved. Proof is given for the structure of the simple Deuterium nucleus. The same process originates also a short-range "weak" force on the electron closely orbiting a proton, giving rise to the neutron structure which undergoes β- decay. The mutual strong forces on a nucleon pair are equal, but the weak force on the bound electron differs largely from the force on the proton (breakdown of Newton's action and reaction symmetry). © 2008 C. Roy Keys Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)440 - 464
Number of pages25
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

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