The Machu Pichu Charter of 1977 launched the idea of "cities and regions" being interdependent entities that tend to become one, "multifunctionality" rather than "zoning", "communication" as the key to human life, "architecture" as socially functional spaces to live in. However, above all it introduced the concept of "the quality of life and its integration with the natural environment... The impact of technological and mechanical developments have led to architecture often using artificial conditioning systems created to work with unnatural lighting and climates..." In other words, the basic principles of bio-climatic architecture are also used for work in city centres, whereby the architects who design the houses are expected to pay more attention to the microclimate and use local materials, rather than create identical buildings for all climates and latitudes using artificial conditioning/heating systems that cause pollution to ensure the comfort of indoor environments. The most cost-effective technological options for the civil sector to help reduce CO 2 emissions between now and 2020 in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol are passive solar systems, thermal insulation for buildings, high-efficiency heating systems, etc. A large number of "historical" buildings comprise materials with a high level of thermal inertia, internal courtyards and staircases that provide natural ventilation, windows orientated in accordance with the direction of winds that prevail in that particular microclimate and comfortable outdoor spaces such as porticos, etc. A large number of buildings lead to teleheating which consequently leads to large savings in primary energy, especially when combined with the co-generation of heat and electricity. The need to use traditional materials, to be aware of the techniques used to create "historical" buildings and to respect historical and artistic materials requires particular expertise and training courses to create the specialists. Even if the quality of life in large cities is not the best, cities still remain centres of cultural, social and economic activities.
|Pages (from-to)||11 - 15|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Environmental Protection Engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 2006|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Environmental Engineering