Tissue shrinkage in microwave ablation of liver: an ex vivo predictive model

Claudio Amabile, Laura Farina, Vanni Lopresto, Rosanna Pinto, Simone Cassarino, Nevio Tosoratti, S. Nahum Goldberg, Marta Cavagnaro

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of the shrinkage of liver tissues in microwave ablation. Methods: Thirty-seven cuboid specimens of ex vivo bovine liver of size ranging from 2 cm to 8 cm were heated exploiting different techniques: 1) using a microwave oven (2.45 GHz) operated at 420 W, 500 W and 700 W for 8 to 20 min, achieving complete carbonisation of the specimens, 2) using a radiofrequency ablation apparatus (450 kHz) operated at 70 W for a time ranging from 6 to 7.5 min obtaining white coagulation of the specimens, and 3) using a microwave (2.45 GHz) ablation apparatus operated at 60 W for 10 min. Measurements of specimen dimensions, carbonised and coagulated regions were performed using a ruler with an accuracy of 1 mm. Based on the results of the first two experiments a predictive model for the contraction of liver tissue from microwave ablation was constructed and compared to the result of the third experiment. Results: For carbonised tissue, a linear contraction of 31 ± 6% was obtained independently of the heating source, power and operation time. Radiofrequency experiments determined that the average percentage linear contraction of white coagulated tissue was 12 ± 5%. The average accuracy of our model was determined to be 3 mm (5%). Conclusions: The proposed model allows the prediction of the shrinkage of liver tissues upon microwave ablation given the extension of the carbonised and coagulated zones. This may be useful in helping to predict whether sufficient tissue volume is ablated in clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101 - 109
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cancer Research

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