Two-colour pump-probe experiments with a twin-pulse-seed extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser

E. Allaria, F. Bencivenga, R. Borghes, F. Capotondi, D. Castronovo, P. Charalambous, P. Cinquegrana, M.B. Danailov, G. De Ninno, A. Demidovich, S. Di Mitri, B. Diviacco, D. Fausti, W.M. Fawley, E. Ferrari, L. Froehlich, D. Gauthier, A. Gessini, L. Giannessi, R. IvanovM. Kiskinova, G. Kurdi, B. Mahieu, N. Mahne, I. Nikolov, C. Masciovecchio, E. Pedersoli, G. Penco, L. Raimondi, C. Serpico, P. Sigalotti, S. Spampinati, C. Spezzani, C. Svetina, M. Trovò, M. Zangrando

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Exploring the dynamics of matter driven to extreme non-equilibrium states by an intense ultrashort X-ray pulse is becoming reality, thanks to the advent of free-electron laser technology that allows development of different schemes for probing the response at variable time delay with a second pulse. Here we report the generation of two-colour extreme ultraviolet pulses of controlled wavelengths, intensity and timing by seeding of high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser with multiple independent laser pulses. The potential of this new scheme is demonstrated by the time evolution of a titanium-grating diffraction pattern, tuning the two coherent pulses to the titanium M-resonance and varying their intensities. This reveals that an intense pulse induces abrupt pattern changes on a time scale shorter than hydrodynamic expansion and ablation. This result exemplifies the essential capabilities of the jitter-free multiple-colour free-electron laser pulse sequences to study evolving states of matter with element sensitivity. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2476
Pages (from-to)-
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Allaria, E., Bencivenga, F., Borghes, R., Capotondi, F., Castronovo, D., Charalambous, P., Cinquegrana, P., Danailov, M. B., De Ninno, G., Demidovich, A., Di Mitri, S., Diviacco, B., Fausti, D., Fawley, W. M., Ferrari, E., Froehlich, L., Gauthier, D., Gessini, A., Giannessi, L., ... Zangrando, M. (2013). Two-colour pump-probe experiments with a twin-pulse-seed extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser. Nature Communications, 4, -. [2476].